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Consultancy & Research

Permitting Studies for Underground Hydrocarbon Storage Facility

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About the Project

The first commercial underground rock caverns facility for storage of liquid hydrocarbons in Southeast Asia, the Jurong Rock Caverns (JRC) is located at a depth of 150m below the ground, and 130m beneath Banyan Basin on Jurong Island.

The JRC will store 1.47 million m3 of liquid hydrocarbons such as crude oil and condensate. By utilising subterranean storage spaces, the JRC not only ensures the security of the products in storage, it will also translate to a saving of approximately 60-hectare of land.

Jurong Town Corporation (JTC) intends to realize the Jurong Rock Cavern Storage Terminal project at Banyan Basin. The terminal will be completed with underground caverns, above-ground storage tanks, jetties, loading / unloading facilities and will be used for storage, trans-shipment and distribution of liquid petroleum products to support the Jurong Island industrial development as well as the regional market. The Terminal will be built in phases.

Our Approach

During the Initial Planning and Basic Engineering Design, ESC was appointed by the client to prepare an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Pollution Control Study (PCS) and a Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA), for the JRC. Each of these studies has been submitted and approved by relevant authorities in 2009.

Based on the comments received from authorities in 2012, the main contractor for the construction of the Phase 1 JRC, was requested to revise the Phase 1 JRC QRA and to perform additional consequence analysis to assess the potential offsite impacts arising from the underground caverns storage of hydrocarbon products which was originally excluded from the previous QRA. ESC was tasked to perform a QRA of the planned Phase 1 facilities and a Computational Fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling to assess the potential explosion risk of underground hydrocarbon storage. Once the caverns became operational, ESC was retained to assist the clients’ team to fulfil the new MHI requirements. ESC is currently assisting the Safety Case team with the development of the Safety Case including:

  • identification of Major Accident Hazards (MAHs)
  • Major Accident Scenario (MASs)
  • Safety Critical Events (SCEs)
  • Occupied Building Risk Assessment
  • Human Factors
  • ALARP (As Low As Reasonable Practicable) Demonstration
  • Emergency Response Plan (ERP)


Leveraging our established professional relationships with regulatory authorities, whilst drawing on our deep local and legislative insights, ESC continues to assist the client over the years with all permitting required studies and process safety management from the early planning design stage of the facility onwards.

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