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Study on Emissions Inventory for Air Pollutants

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About the Project

The study aim was to develop a comprehensive Emission Inventory database for Singapore by determining and quantifying the primary sources of Particulate matter (PM10 & PM2.5), Sulphur dioxide, Oxides of nitrogen (Nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) and Carbon monoxide.

Our Approach

The initial study was conducted for the reference year 2007 and the project addressed all land-based sources (eg industries, motor vehicles, power stations, refineries, waste incinerators, construction sites etc), shipping emissions, aircraft emissions, transboundary sources and natural sources (eg seaspray etc).  The study also required the development/customization/calibration/validation of an air dispersion model for Singapore. The model is able to assess the impact of current and new sources of air pollution on Singapore’s ambient air quality. 

Following the initial study, the emission inventory database was updated between 2015 to 2017. The updated inventory covered all primary emissions sources generating PM10 & PM2.5, SO2, NOx, CO and VOCs.  Emission sources included Industrial (all Singapore industries as well as overseas in Johor and Batam); Road traffic (all Singapore registered vehicles and those visiting and road traffic in Johor and Batam); Air Traffic (Changi Airport); Inland Boat Traffic; Construction Sites; transboundary haze sources; Natural Background; all off-road diesel engines (including those registered as DRUPS). Other sources include town gas (homes and hawker centres), vehicle workshops, painting works etc. 

Once completed, the inventory was verified via monitoring and air quality modelling across Singapore, verifying model output against monitored data and calculating pollutant concentrations on a high-resolution grid. 


ESC effectively built a comprehensive emission inventory database for Singapore primary emission sources. The results are used by the Singapore Authorities to develop the air quality policies for Singapore. 

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